D.3.3 Compare the structures of morphine, codeine and diamorphine (commonly known as heroin, a semi-synthetic opiate).


Structures of morphine, codeine and diamorphine(heroin):
=Morphine:=
=Codeine:=
=Diamorphine (Heroin):=
external image morphine.jpg
external image Codeine.png
external image 332px-Heroin_-_Heroine.svg.png

C17H19NO3
3D interactive structure for morphine!

C18H21NO3
3D interactive structure for codeine!
C21H23NO5
3D interactive structure for diamorphine!
- Morphine and Codeine have identical structures except for the HO and H3CO on the top left corner of their structures and the Me and CH3 connected to N.
- There is one more Carbon atom and two more Hydrogen atoms in Codeine than in Morphine.
- All three structures involve Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Oxygen atoms.

Codine is produced through O-Methylation(addition or substition of an atom or a group) of morphine

Acetylation of Morphine:
Heroin, or diamorphine, is a white or brown powder that you can snort, smoke, swallow or inject. It is many times more potent than morphine, and also much more addictive.
Heroin is created through the acetylation of the two hydroxyl groups (the -OH groups) of morphine with acetyl chloride.
The two OH groups are replaced with with -OCOCH3 (acetyl chloride) resulting in the structure of diamorphine/heroin.

heroin_synthesis.png
*Acetylation is a reaction in which an acetyl functional group (CH3 CO) is combined with a chemical compound to form a new compound by replacing the hydrogen atom of an -OH group with an acetyl group.